Terrorists frequently use explosive devices as one of the most common weapons. It is not hard for a terrorist or anyone to find the information or supplies to make and explosive device. Many hardware, and auto supply shops have the necessary supplies available and information on making different devices are available in books and on  the web.Explosives are highly portable and easily detonated from remote locations.

An Explosion is caused by the sudden chemical conversion of a solid or liquid into gas with resultant energy release. Explosive devices are categorized as either High-order Explosives( HE) such as C4 and TNT or Low- order( LE) such as pipe bombs, gun powder, and Molotov cocktails. HE detonation involves supersonic, instantaneous transformation of the solid or liquid into a gas occupying the same physical space under extremely high pressure. these high pressure gasses rapidly expand outward in all directions from their point of formation as an over pressure blast wave. The extent of injuries produced by an explosion are determined by several factors:

  • Amount and composition of explosive material
  • Method of delivery
  • Distance between victims and the blast
  • The setting(open or closed space, structural collapse)
  • Other Accompanying environmental conditions

Related Injuries

Primary blast injuries result from HE detonations and the impact of the blast wave. Damage occurs mainly to the gas containing organs( lungs, ears, gastrointestinal tract)

Secondary blast injuries result from penetrating and blunt trauma caused by fragments and flying objects striking the victim

Tertiary blast injuries include blunt and penetrating trauma cause by displacement of the victim( E.G. being thrown against a wall)

Quaternary blast injuries are other injuries resulting from detonation of an explosive device and exacerbation of chronic diseases resulting from the blast. This includes burns, crush injuries, and toxic inhalants from components of the device


Protective measures

If you receive a telephone threat regarding a bomb you should:

Get as much information as you can from the caller if possible

Where is the bomb? What will cause it to detonate? What time will it go off? What does the bomb look like?Who are they? Why are they doing this? Did they place the bomb?

Keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said.

Notify police and building management.

Suspicious Packages/ Envelopes

Take precautions with packages that are:

Unexpected of from someone unfamiliar

Have no return address, or have one that can’t be verified as legitimate

Are marked with restrictive endorsements such as ” personal”, ” confidential”, or ” do not x-ray”

Have protruding wires or aluminum foil, strange odors, or stains

Show a city or state in the postmark that doesn’t match the return address

Are of unusual weight given their size, or are lopsided or oddly shaped

Are marked with threatening language

Have inappropriate or unusual labeling

Have excessive postage or packaging material, such as masking tape and string

Have misspellings of common words

Are addressed to someone no longer with your organization or are otherwise outdated

Have incorrect titles or titles without a name

Are not addressed to a specific person

Have hand written or poorly typed addresses

Refrain from eating or drinking in a designated mail handling area

Never sniff or smell suspect mail

Put suspicious letters or packages in plastic bag or container to prevent leakage

or cover with anything available

If you find a something leave the room close the door and seal off the area. Wash hands with soap and water to prevent spreading powder to face.

Make sure to report the incident immediately. Make sure to give a list of anyone in the area when the letter or package was recognized and give the list to the public health authorities and law enforcement.

If there is an explosion, you should;

Get under a sturdy table or desk if things are falling around you. When they stop falling, leave quickly watch for obviously weakened floors and stairways. Watch for falling debris when exiting the building.

Leave the building as quickly as possible. Do not stop to gather personal possessions or make phone calls

Do not use elevators

Once out of the building

Do not stand near windows, glass doors or other potentially hazardous areas

Move away from sidewalks and streets to be used by emergency officials or others exiting the area

If trapped in debris:

If possible use a flashlight to signal your location

Avoid unnecessary movement to prevent kicking up dust

Cover your nose and mouth with anything you have.

Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can hear where you are. Avoid yelling to save energy, shouting can also cause someone to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. If possible use a whistle to signal. A whistle is much loader than you can yell and uses much less effort.

Other things you should consider in a terrorist event:

Secondary Explosions

Secondary explosive devices are bombs placed at the scene of an ongoing emergency response that are intended to cause causalities among responders. These devices are designed to explode after a primary explosions or other major emergency response event that has attracted a large number of responders to the scene. SEs are usually hidden out of view camouflaged by placing the devices in ordinary objects. They can be detonated by time delay or radio controlled devices and cell phones.


I hope If you have been reading my posts you are starting to see that preparing for one disaster is almost the same as preparing for any disaster. At least that’s how i see it. Though each disaster has its uniqueness, You can adjust for them when the time comes as long as you prepare now.


Now its time to talk about Terrorism.

Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the united states for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom. Terrorists create threats to:

Create Fear

Try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism

Get immediate publicity for their causes


How to prepare for terrorism

Be aware of your suroundings

Learn about emergency exits in building you frequent

Be prepared to do without services you depend on. Electric, telephone, natural gas, gasoline pumps, cash registers, atms.

All the things you should do for

Volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes,  earthquakes, floods, that drunk guy that crashed into that power line on the corner.

Be prepared for life to run its course.

Soon i will get into more specifics about terrorist threats like biological, explosions, dirty bombs and more.

But when i do remember the basics and add to your knowledge.


A volcano is a vent through which molten rock escapes to the earth’s surface. When pressure from gases within the molten rock becomes too great, an eruption occurs.

Eruptions can be quiet explosive. There may be lava flows, flattened landscapes, poisonous gases, and flying rock and ash.  Because of their intense heat, lava flows are great fire hazards. Lava flows destroy everything in their path, but mostly move slowly so people can move out of the way. Fresh Volcanic ash, made of pulverized rock, can be abrasive, acidic, gritty, gassy, and odorous. Ash can cause lung damage to small infants, older adults, and those with severe respiratory illness. It can also damage machinery and mixed with water can become heavy enough to collapse roofs.

A volcanic eruption can also be accompanied with, Earthquakes, mudflows, flash floods, rock falls, landslides, acid rain, fire and sometimes tsunamis.

Before a Volcano

Add a pair of goggles and breathing mask to your kit

To protect yourself from falling ash you should:

Wear long sleved shirts and pants

Use goggles and eye glasses instead of contact lenses

use a dust mask or damp cloth to protect your airway

Avoid areas downwind from the volcano

Stay indoors until ash has settled if it is safe to do so.

Close all doors windows and vents entering the house if possible

Avoid driving in heavy ash and avoid running engines volcanic ash can damage moving parts and stall engines

If you can avoid being near an active volcano all together.

When it comes to disaster preparedness i think a lot of people forget the first step in being prepared.

That is to avoid the situation all together.

These posts are for the unavoidable

My adventures have thrown me into many dangerous situations and when i look back they could have almost all been avoided. But for those that live in areas that are in possible danger of volcanos or any disaster please be ready and prepared.

I always keep a dust mask and goggles in my kit. Also consider what else you might have in your kit that can be useful. Protective layering, bandannas. anything that can be used to protect you from the ash and aid you in evacuation.

Also in your bug out plan make sure you have a further bug out location.

A Little bit from Wikipedia( not usually my first place to look)

In 1980, a major volcanic eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens, a volcano located in state of Washington, in the United States. The eruption (which was a VEI 5 event) was the only significant one to occur in the contiguous 48 U.S. states since the 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak in California.[1] The eruption was preceded by a two-month series of earthquakes and steam-venting episodes, caused by an injection of magma at shallow depth below the volcano that created a huge bulge and a fracture system on the mountain’s north slope.

Prior to the eruption, USGS scientists convinced local authorities to close Mount St. Helens to the general public and to maintain the closure in spite of local pressure to re-open it; their work saved thousands of lives. An earthquake at 8:32:17 a.m. PDT (UTC−7) on Sunday, May 18, 1980, caused the entire weakened north face to slide away, suddenly exposing the partly molten, gas- and steam-rich rock in the volcano to lower pressure. The rock responded by exploding a hot mix of lava and pulverized older rock toward Spirit Lake so fast that it overtook the avalanching north face.

An eruption column rose 80,000 feet (24 km; 15 mi) into the atmosphere and deposited ash in 11 U.S. states.[2] At the same time, snow, ice and several entire glaciers on the volcano melted, forming a series of large lahars (volcanic mudslides) that reached as far as the Columbia River, nearly 50 miles (80 km) to the southwest. Less-severe outbursts continued into the next day, only to be followed by other large, but not as destructive, eruptions later in 1980.

Fifty-seven people were killed, including innkeeper Harry R. Truman, photographer Reid Blackburn and geologist David A. Johnston.[3] Hundreds of square miles were reduced to wasteland causing over a billion U.S. dollars in damage ($2.88 billion in 2014 dollars[4]), thousands of game animals were killed, and Mount St. Helens was left with a crater on its north side. At the time of the eruption, the summit of the volcano was owned by the Burlington Northern Railroad, but afterward the land passed to the United States Forest Service.[5] The area was later preserved, as it was, in the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument.

Active Shooter

An Active Shooter is an individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in
a confined and populated area; in most cases, active shooters use firearms(s) and there is no
pattern or method to their selection of victims.
Active shooter situations are unpredictable and evolve quickly. Typically, the immediate
deployment of law enforcement is required to stop the shooting and mitigate harm to victims.
Because active shooter situations are often over within 10 to 15 minutes, before law
enforcement arrives on the scene, individuals must be prepared both mentally and physically to deal with an active shooter situation
Good practices for coping with an
active shooter situation
• Be aware of your environment and any
possible dangers
• Take note of the two nearest exits in any
facility you visit
• If you are in an office, stay there and
secure the door
• If you are in a hallway, get into a room
and secure the door
• As a last resort, attempt to take the active
shooter down. When the shooter is at
close range and you cannot flee, your
chance of survival is much greater if you
try to incapacitate him/her.
Quickly determine the most reasonable way to protect your own life. Remember that
customers and clients are likely to follow the lead of employees and managers during an
active shooter situation.
1. Evacuate
If there is an accessible escape path, attempt to evacuate the premises. Be sure to:
• Have an escape route and plan in mind
• Evacuate regardless of whether others agree to follow
• Leave your belongings behind
• Help others escape, if possible
• Prevent individuals from entering an area where the active shooter may be
• Keep your hands visible
• Follow the instructions of any police officers
• Do not attempt to move wounded people
• Call 911 when you are safe
2. Hide out
If evacuation is not possible, find a place to hide where the active shooter is less likely
to find you.
Your hiding place should:
• Be out of the active shooter’s view
• Provide protection if shots are fired in your direction (i.e., an office with a closed
and locked door)
• Not trap you or restrict your options for movement
To prevent an active shooter from entering your hiding place:
• Lock the door
• Blockade the door with heavy furniture
If the active shooter is nearby:
• Lock the door
• Silence your cell phone and/or pager
• Turn off any source of noise (i.e., radios, televisions)
• Hide behind large items (i.e., cabinets, desks)
• Remain quiet
If evacuation and hiding out are not possible:
• Remain calm
• Dial 911, if possible, to alert police to the active shooter’s location
• If you cannot speak, leave the line open and allow the dispatcher to listen
3. Take action against the active shooter
As a last resort, and only when your life is in imminent danger, attempt to
disrupt and/or incapacitate the active shooter by:
• Acting as aggressively as possible against him/her
• Throwing items and improvising weapons
• Yelling
• Committing to your actions
Law enforcement’s purpose is to stop the active shooter as soon as possible. Officers will
proceed directly to the area in which the last shots were heard.
• Officers usually arrive in teams of four (4)
• Officers may wear regular patrol uniforms or external bulletproof vests, Kevlar helmets,
and other tactical equipment
• Officers may be armed with rifles, shotguns, handguns
• Officers may use pepper spray or tear gas to control the situation
• Officers may shout commands, and may push individuals to the ground for their safety
How to react when law enforcement arrives:
• Remain calm, and follow officers’ instructions
• Put down any items in your hands (i.e., bags, jackets)
• Immediately raise hands and spread fingers
• Keep hands visible at all times
• Avoid making quick movements toward officers such as holding on to them for safety
• Avoid pointing, screaming and/or yelling
• Do not stop to ask officers for help or direction when evacuating, just proceed in the
direction from which officers are entering the premises
Information to provide to law enforcement or 911 operator:
• Location of the active shooter
• Number of shooters, if more than one
• Physical description of shooter/s
• Number and type of weapons held by the shooter/s
• Number of potential victims at the location
The first officers to arrive to the scene will not stop to help injured persons. Expect rescue
teams comprised of additional officers and emergency medical personnel to follow the initial
officers. These rescue teams will treat and remove any injured persons. They may also call
upon able-bodied individuals to assist in removing the wounded from the premises.
Once you have reached a safe location or an assembly point, you will likely be held in that area
by law enforcement until the situation is under control, and all witnesses have been identified and questioned. Do not leave until law enforcement authorities have instructed you to do so.
Remember if you are asked to lay down near the Active Shooter you should lay face down with your feet pointing in the direction of the shooter. This is to minimize any serious damage to your body if shot at.

Wilderness First Responder

Wilderness First Responder

I have recently finished a Wilderness First Responder course and I found it to be very helpful.
So here’s a little bit to give you an idea what a WFR is or does

Wilderness First Responder (WFR) and Wilderness EMT are job training programs leading to certifications. Based on the Department of Transportation’s First Responder and EMT curriculums, the WFR and WEMT programs integrate wilderness and medical training. By definition, ” wilderness” in wilderness emergency medicine is based on the concepts of:
1.Distance from traditional care or transport – usually one hour or more
2.Environmental concerns such as severe weather, altitude, heat, cold, and depth
3.Improvisation of equipment so as to minimize weight
4.Difficult or hazardous terrain

Wilderness Emergency Care versus Urban Emergency Care

Time and Distance
Wilderness- beyond the golden hour, more like the golden day
Very delayed notification, usually via foot, may take hours
Very delayed response and evacuation time, usually hours

Urban- within the golden hour
Rapid notification, usually via phone to 911
Rapid response and rapid evacuation time, usually within minutes

Environmental Concerns
Wilderness- long term exposure and weather concerns
Dramatic impact on patient care and on rescuers

Urban- short term exposure, weather of minimal concern

Difficult or Hazardous Terrain
Wilderness- frequent, unavoidable rough handling of patient
Rough, uneven litter ride on evacuation
Difficult footing for rescuers
May require specialized equipment and technical skills

Urban- usually minimal and easily controlled with abundant resources to help

Improvisation of Equipment and Resources
Wilderness- have to carry gear on your back
Maximize efficiency to minimize weight
Improvisation of equipment very common
Very limited equipment and access to other resources

Urban- access to modern equipment and a variety of resources

Specialized Skills Not Commonly Used In Prehospital Care

Wilderness- providing long term patient care and team management
Maintaining caloric intake and hydrating patients
Reducing angulated fractures and dislocations
Managing environmental emergencies
Using bivouac and survival skills, expert outdoor skills
Using map and compass; search and rescue skills
Forecasting weather and surviving severe weather conditions
Utilizing technical rescue skills, ropes and knots, water rescue skills

Urban- rare if necessary call” medical control”

The first day of class was full of information. It was more then my brain could handle and then the next day we had to use it for skill scenarios and more information. By day 4 I was getting the idea of things but I ran into a lot of mistakes and missed things. That was exactly the point. The instructors were constantly throwing a curve ball and it worked. By day seven we had the steps down. And the knowledge to deal with most things. In 8 days I learned the patient assessment system, how to take vitals and fill out a soapnote, how to safety move patients, how to manage an airway, How to give effective CPR, how to handle heart attacks, different types of shock,soft tissue injuries, burns, fractures, dislocations, head and spinal injuries, cardio thoracic trams, abdominal and genitourinary trauma, different medical emergencies, seizures,diabetes,dyspea, environmental emergencies, frost bite, hypothermia, heat stroke, drowning, bites stings and poisons, AMS, HAPE, HACE,how to make a splint out of just about anything, how to build a litter and backboard and carry a patient out, and I learned how to treat these things to the best of my ability with what I might have in a backpack out in the wilderness for extended periods of time.

A person could read books on the stuff everyday and not have the confidence to react. It was a satisfying experience that I will not forget about.







One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature
is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a s
udden movement of the earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time.
For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonic
s have shaped the earth, as the huge plates that form the earths surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes, the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs
in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and
extensive property damage.
Know The Terms
A sudden slipping or movement of a portion of the earths crust, accom-
panied and followed by a series of vibrations.
An earthquake of similar or lesser intensity that follows the main earth-
The fracture across which displacement has occurred during an earthquake. The slippage may range from less than an inch to more than 10 yards in a severe earthquake.
The place on the earth’s surface directly above the point on the fault
where the earthquake rupture began. Once fault slippage begins, it expands along the fault during the earthquake and can extend hundreds of
miles before stopping.
Seismic Waves
Vibrations that travel outward from the earthquake fault at spe
eds of several miles per second. Although fault slippage directly und
er a structure can cause considerable damage, the vibrations of seismic waves cause most of the destruction during earthquakes.

The amount of energy released during an earthquake, which is computed from the amplitude of the seismic waves. A magnitude of 7.0 on
the Richter Scale indicates an extremely strong earthquake. Each whole
number on the scale represents an increase of about 30 times more energy released than the previous whole number represents. Therefore,
an earthquake measuring 6.0 is about 30 times more powerful than one measuring 5.0.
The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family, and your property in the event of an earthquake:
• Repair defective electrical wiring, leaky gas lines, and inflexible utility connections.
Get appropriate professional help. Do not work with gas or electrical
lines yourself.
• Bolt down and secure to the wall studs your water heater, refrigerator, furnace,and gas appliances. If recommended by your gas company, have an automatic gas shut-off valve installed that is triggered by strong vibrations.
• Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves. Fasten shelves, mirrors, and large picture frames to walls. Brace high and top-heavy objects.
• Store bottled foods, glass, china, and other breakables on low shelves or in cabinets that fasten shut.
• Anchor overhead lighting fixtures.
• Be sure the residence is firmly anchored to its foundation.
• Install flexible pipe fittings to avoid gas or water leaks. Flexible fittings are more resistant to breakage.
• Locate safe spots in each room under a sturdy table or against an inside wall. Reinforce this information by moving to these places during each drill.
• Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover, and hold
During and earthquake
If Indoors
• Take cover under a sturdy desk, table, or bench or against
an inside wall, and hold on. If there isn’t a table or desk
near you, cover your face and head with your arms and
crouch in an inside corner of the building.
• Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls,
and anything that could fall, such as lighting fi xtures or
• Stay in bed—if you are there when the earthquake
strikes—hold on and protect your head with a pillow,
unless you are under a heavy light fi xture that could fall.
In that case, move to the nearest safe place.
• Use a doorway for shelter only if it is in close proximity
to you and if you know it is a strongly supported, loadbearing
• Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go
outside. Most injuries during earthquakes occur when
people are hit by falling objects when entering into or
exiting from buildings.
• Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler
systems or fi re alarms may turn on.
• DO NOT use the elevators
If outdoors
  • Stay there
  • Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires

In a moving vehicle

• Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the
vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees,
overpasses, and utility wires.
• Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped,
watching for road and bridge damage.

Trapped under debris
• Do not light a match.
• Do not move about or kick up dust.
• Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
• Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a
whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort—
shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of

After an Earthquake

• Be prepared for aftershocks. These secondary shockwaves are usually less violent than the main quake but can be strong enough to do additional damage
to weakened structures.
• Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.
• Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police, fire, or relief organizations.
• Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas. These are also known as seismic sea waves (mistakenly called “tidal waves”). When local authorities issue a tsunami warning, assume that a series of dangerous waves is on the way. Stay away from the beach.

Like always keep your BOB ready and be ready to bail if needed.


Hurricanes can cause catastrophic damage to coastlines and several hundred miles inland. Winds can exceed 155 miles per hour. Hurricanes and Tropical storms can also spawn tornadoes and microbusts, create storm surges along the coast, and cause extensive damage from rainfall. Heavy rain can also trigger flooding, landslides or mud slides.

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

Hurricanes are classified in five categories.  All hurricanes on this scale warrant your full attention.

Category       Winds (MPH)         Damage                                                 Storm Surge

1                        74-95                 Minimal:   Unanchored mobile homes        4-5 Ft

Vegitation, and signs

2                        96-110               Moderate: all mobile homes                            6-8 Ft

roofs,  flooding

3                        111-130             Extensive: small buildings                               9-12ft

low lying roads cut off

4                        131-155             Extreme: Roofs, destroyed, trees down  13-18ft

road cut off, mobile homes destroyed

beach homes flooded

5                   More than 155     Catastrophic: Most buildings destroyed    18ft +

vegetation destroyed. major roads cut off

homes flooded

Know The Terms

Tropical Depression
An organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface
circulation and maximum sustained winds of 38 MPH (33 knots) or less.
Sustained winds are defined as one-minute average wind measured at
about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
Tropical Storm
An organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface cir-
culation and maximum sustained winds of 39-73 MPH (34-63 knots).
An intense tropical weather system of strong thunderstorms with a well-
defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 74 MPH
(64 knots) or higher.
Storm Surge
A dome of water pushed onshore by hurricane and tropical storm winds.
Storm surges can reach 25 feet high and be 50-100 miles wide.
Storm Tide
A combination of storm surge and the normal tide (i.e., a 15-foot storm
surge combined with a 2-foot normal high tide over the mean sea level
creates a 17-foot storm tide).
Hurricane/Tropical Storm Watch
Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are possible in the specified area,
usually within 36 hours. Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial
radio, or television for information.
Hurricane/Tropical Storm Warning
Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are expected in the specifi
ed area,usually within 24 hours.
Short Term Watches and Warnings
These warnings provide detailed information about specific hurricane
threats, such as flash floods and tornadoes.
Before a Hurricane
• Make plans to secure your property. Permanent storm shutters offer the bestprotection for windows. A second option is to board up windows with 5/8”marine plywood, cut to fit and ready to install. Tape does not prevent win-dows from breaking.
• Install straps or additional clips to securely fasten your roof to the frame struc-ture. This will reduce roof damage.
• Be sure trees and shrubs around your home are well trimmed.
• Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts.
• Determine how and where to secure your boat.
• Consider building a safe room.

If a hurricane is likely in your area, you should:

• Listen to the radio or TV for information.
• Secure your home, close storm shutters, and secure outdoor objects or bring them indoors.
• Turn off utilities if instructed to do so. Otherwise, turn the refrigerator ther-mostat to its coldest setting and keep its doors closed.
• Turn off propane tanks.
• Avoid using the phone, except for serious emergencies.
• Moor your boat if time permits.
• Ensure a supply of water for sanitary purposes such as cleaning and flushing toilets. Fill the bathtub and other large containers with water.
Remember that you should also follow preparations associated with hurricanes such as flooding, tornadoes, lightning, and landslides
If you are instructed to evacuate by local authorities, do so immediately.
Make Sure you are prepared to bug out and get to your BOL.
Having multiple Bug Out Locations can help in this case. Hurricanes can cover many miles and having a farther location preferably out of the storm path would be ideal.
If unable to evacuate, bug in the safest room in the structure.
Studying how to prepare for many different disaster will help keep you and your family safe when it counts most. Knowing what these type of damage these disasters cause and how to prepare will keep you ready for most things. Remember the basic principles are the same and you should always have your BOB ready to go if needed.
Side Note
Since 1953, Atlantic tropical storms have been named from lists originated by the National Hurricane
Center and now maintained and updated by an international committee of the World Meteorological
Organization. The lists featured only women’s names until 1979. After that, men’s and women’s names
were alternated. Six lists are used in rotation.
The only time there is a change in the list is if a storm is so deadly or costly that the continued use of
the name would be inappropriate for reasons of sensitivity. When this occurs, the name is stricken
from the list and another name is selected to replace it.
Sometimes names are changed. Lorenzo replaced Luis and Michelle replaced Marilyn. The complete
lists can be found at
under “Storm Names.”